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高考英语速解:正确识字是学习语法的基本前提

高考英语速解:正确识字是学习语法的基本前提

 

在中国,有很多中学生花了很大的精力学习英语。但是,由于采用错误的死记硬背的方法记忆单词,导致不仅无法真正解决单词问题而且还会感觉语法异常复杂。用正确的方法认识单词,学习语法肯定会事半功倍。也就是说,正确识字是学习语法的基本前提。

高考英语中,“状语从句”一直是一个老大难。根本的问题是很多学生搞不清楚什么是“状语”,什么是“从句”,更不认识adverbialclause。事实上,它们都是既简单又可爱,也都是国外小学生可以轻松掌握的。

在记忆adverbial前一定要先掌握verbadverb

【英语】verb [vɜrb /vɜːb]n.  动词

它实际上是拉丁语单词verbum去掉表“性别”的后缀-um

【拉丁语】verbumverbum, verbi n. n. word; proverb;

拉丁语中的名词有“阳、中、阴”等三种“性别”。-um是表“中性、单数”后缀,英语单词museum(博物馆), minimum(最小值), maximum(最大值), aquarium(水族馆)实际上都是拉丁语单词,都用到-um

拉丁语中的verbum意思相当于英语中的word,德语中的Wort。英语在引进这个单词时去掉了表“性别”的后缀-um,意思也只是用来表“动词”。

强烈推荐大家顺便熟悉一下德语中表“动词”的单词。

【德语】Zeitwort  [das] 动词。

由简单的Zeit(时间)和Wort(词)组成。请通过对Zeitwort的认识来仔细品味西方的人是如何看待“动词”的。

【德语】Zeit  [die] pl.Zeiten 时。时候。时间。季节。期间。

注:德语中的ei[ai]——对应英语中元音字母i的字母音。而ie[i:]——对应英语中元音字母e的字母音。

【德语】Wort  [das] 词。单词。词语。字。文字。

Wort中的t变化为d就是相应的英语单词word

【英语】word[wɜrd /wɜːd]n.  , 消息, ,

 

众所周知,现代英语、德语、法语、意大利语、西班牙语等成百上千的语言使用的都是拉丁字母。

早期的拉丁语中没有j,k,w,u。拉丁语中的V是半元音,作元音使用时读[u],作辅音使用时读[w]。后来,人们用w替代了作辅音的V,用u替代了作元音的V

英语中的word,德语中的Wort和拉丁语中的verbum是同源词。

在认识verb的基础上,记忆adverb真的是易如反掌。

【英语】adverb  ['ædvɜːb]n.  副词

德语也使用相同的形式。只是德语中的所有名词首字母均大写。

【德语】Adverb  [das] pl.Adverben 副词。

它们都源自拉丁语的adverbium

【拉丁语】adverbiumadverbium, adverbii n. n. adverb;

英语、德语中都是去掉表“性别”的后缀-um和起中介作用的i

 

在认识verbadverb的基础上,再记忆adverbial就非常简单了。

【英语】adverbial[ədˈvəːbiəl]adj.副词的; 状语的

adverbial clause状语从句

adverbial phrase副词短语

an adverbial of time [place, cause, comparison, proportion, condition, concession, purpose, result]时间[地点, 原因, 比较, 比例, 条件, 让步, 目的, 结果]状语

【德语】adverbial  adj.adv. 副词的。状语的。做副词。

要特别注意:-al是拉丁语中的形容词后缀。也就是说,它们都源自拉丁语。绝大多数在-al后面加上-is就是相应的拉丁语单词。

【拉丁语】adverbialisadverbialis, adverbialis, adverbial adj. adverbial

相信您看到这里已经明白:把adverbial分解成adverbial去“背”是极其愚蠢的行为!

 

绝大多数的小朋友都不会感觉记忆case这样的单词有难度,我们完全可以利用它顺便记忆cause, pauseclause, chase, phraserase, erase, eraser(橡皮)。

 

这里,我们重点学习一下clausephrase。因为它们都和语法有关。

【英语】clause[klɔːz]n.1. 〈语法〉分句;从句;子句2. 条款;款项

注:元音字母组合au[ɔː],位于元音字母之间的s多数读[z]

请看一个相关的命名:

The clause in the contract is insusceptible of another interpretation.

合同中的这条规定是不能有其他解释的。

 

【英语】phrase  [freɪz]n.1. 词组2. 短语;片语

a noun phrase名词短语

3. 乐句;乐节

vt.  phrased, phrasing

1. 措辞;用短语描述

a neatly phrased report措辞简洁的报告

2. 分成短句;演奏乐曲时充分发挥每句的效果

 

这是一个法语单词,但意思有所不同。

【法语】phrase[fraz] f. 句子,语句;乐章pl. 空洞的话

要特别注意:英语、法语、德语中的ph都读[f]

 

分别认识adverbialclause,就肯定能认识“adverbial clause(“状语从句”或称“副词从句,其本质就是用一个句子在主句中当一个副词使用)。只要您明白如何使用“副词”,就肯定能正确理解和使用“状语从句”。

根据“状语从句”在句子中的功能,人们又细分出“时间状语从句”等多种形式。只要了解本质,细节上的东西就容易解决了。

下面,是Wikipedia中关于“状语从句”的内容。请耐心地读一读。

特别提示:如果允许使用词典也可以通过网络提问依然读不懂这样的内容,足以说明您的学习方法有严重问题。不要再说什么单词问题、语法问题。根本的问题是您在用错误的方法学习,您的问题是方法问题。您的首要问题是学习并掌握正确的学习方法。只要用正确的方法记忆单词,语法问题就肯定不再是问题。

 

Adverbial clause

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An adverbial clause is dependent clause that functions as an adverb; that is, the entire clause modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

实在读不懂,请用《谷歌翻译》帮助翻译成汉语。

如果您有认为有必要,我愿意帮助您分解其中的每一个单词和每一个句子。当然,这是要收费的。

As with all clauses, it contains subject and predicate, although the subject as well as the (predicate) verb may sometimes be omitted and implied (see below).

An adverbial clause is commonly, but not always, fronted by subordinate conjunction—sometimes called a trigger word. (In the examples below the adverbial clause is italicized and the subordinate conjunction is bolded.)

·       Mary, the aspiring actress, became upset as soon as she saw the casting list.

(subject: she; predicate: saw the casting list; the clause modifies the verb became)

·       Peter Paul, the drama teacher, met with Mary after she came to the next class.''

(explicit subject: she; predicate: came to the next class.; predicate (verb): came; the clause modifies the verb met;)

·       He talked carefully in order to appear fair.

·       He talked carefully in order .. [that 'he'] appear fair.

(implied subject, he, is omitted; predicate (verb): appear; the clause modifies the adverb carefully)

·       The little boy preferred fierce dinosaurs, as [was] T rex.

(subject of the clause: T rex; predicate of the clause: [was], implied; the clause modifies the adjective fierce.)

According to Sidney Greenbaum and Randolph Quirk, adverbial clauses function mainly as adjuncts or disjuncts, which parts also perform in a sentence as adverbial phrases or as adverbial prepositional phrases (Greenbaum and Quirk,1990). Unlike clauses, phrases do not contain a subject and predicate; they are contrasted here:

·       We left the convention the day before.

(adverbial phrase; contains no subject or predicate)

·       We left before the speeches.

(adverbial prepositional phrase; contains no subject or predicate—and no verb (action) is implied)

·       We left after the speeches ended.

(adverbial clause; contains subject and predicate)

·       We left after the speeches.

or, (".. after the speeches [ended]")

(adverbial clause; contains subject and predicate, but the verb 'ended' is omitted and implied)

Contents

·       1Types

·       2References

·       3Further reading

·       4External links

Types

Adverbial clauses are divided into several groups according to the actions or senses of their conjunctions:

Type of clause

Common conjunctions

Function

Example

time

Conjunctions answering the question "when?", such as: when, before, after, since, while, as, as long as, till, until, etc.;

or the paired (correlative) conjunctions: hardly...when, scarcely...when, barely...when, no sooner...than[1]

These clauses:

Say when something happens by referring to a period or point of time, or to another event.

Her goldfish died when she was young.

He came after night had fallen.

We barely had gotten there when mighty Casey struck out.

condition

if, unless, lest

Talk about a possible or counterfactual situation and its consequences.

If they lose weight during an illness, they soon regain it afterwards.

purpose

in order to, so that, in order that, in case

Indicate the purpose of an action.

They had to take some of his land so that they could extend the churchyard.

reason

because, since, as, given

Indicate the reason for something.

I couldn't feel anger against him because I liked him too much.

concession

although, though, while, but

Make two statements, one of which contrasts with the other or makes it seem surprising.

I used to read a lot although I don't get much time for books now.

place

Answering the question "where?": where, wherever, anywhere, everywhere, etc.

Talk about the location or position of something.

He said he was happy where he was.

comparison

as...as, than, as

State comparison of a skill, size or amount, etc.

Johan can speak English as fluently as his teacher.

She is a better cook than I.

manner

Answering the question, "how"?: as, like, the way

Talk about someone's behavior or the way something is done.

I was never allowed to do things as I wanted to do them.

results

so...that, such...that

Indicate the result(s) of an act or event.

My suitcase had become sodamaged that the lid would not stay closed.

 

 

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