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【抛弃背单词,享受学外语】读英语文章轻松玩转拉丁语变格(顺便解决希腊语、德语变格)

【抛弃背单词,享受学外语】读英语文章轻松玩转拉丁语变格(顺便解决希腊语、德语变格)

 

很多学习德语的朋友感觉德语的变格很复杂。我相信:这是死记硬背的后遗症。

事实上,德语中的变格和英语差不多,都已经进行了大量的简化。现代英语中,除了人称代词还残留了一些格变化,名词和形容词的变格已经基本上消失了。英语中“名词+of+名词”的所谓“名词所有格”实际上是利用介词短语作定语。德语中的格变化主要是通过定冠词实现。

和拉丁语变格比起来,英语、德语的变格就是小菜一碟。

下面,是网络上的一篇关于拉丁语变格的文章。请大概地读一读。我相信,只要大概地了解拉丁语变格,就可以解决德语和希腊语的变格。

英语原文地址

Learn the Five Basic Cases of Latin Declensions

As an inflected language, Latin words change to reflect their use.

 

The five basic cases found in Latin declensions have subtle but important differences for students of the language.

 

Learn about the five basic cases in all of Latin's Declensions.

 

Just as a Latin verb changes to reflect the role it plays in a sentence, so do Latin nouns change for the same purpose.

 

However, whereas verbs are conjugated, nouns are declined.

动词是变位——conjugate

名词是变格——decline

conjugate[5kCndVu^it]v.<语法>使(动词)变化, 变化(con+jug+ate)

con-是拉丁语前缀,表“共同,在一起”,-ate动词后缀

也就是说,就算您坚持“背”单词,像conjugate这样的单词也只要“背”jug-这部分就可以了。

jug-源自拉丁语动词jugere

【拉丁语】jugojugo, jugare, jugavi, jugatus v. marry; join (to);jug+are

-are拉丁语动词后缀之一。

英语中的conjugate源自法语。

【法语】conjuguer  [kɔ~ʒyge]v.t. (动词)变位;使结合,使联合I v.t. 1. 结合,联合:(con+jug+u+er

注:英语、法语、意大利语、西班牙语中,辅音字母g位于e,i,y前时多数读软音。需要保持读硬音,则增加一个不发音的u。也就是说gu-是固定组合,表示g[g]

En conjuguant nos efforts, nous parviendrons à surmonter les difficultés. 我们同习协心,一定能克服困难。

2.把(动词)变位

II se conjuguer v.pr. [] (动词)变位

德语中同样使用了拉丁语词根jug-

【德语】konjugieren  vt.(语言学)把……(动词)变位。[数学]共轭(kon+jug+ier+en

-ieren是德语中的动词后缀,这样的单词一般源自法语。

注:英语中读[s]c对应德语中的z,读[k]c则直接写成k

德语中的kon-相当于英语中的前缀con-

 

decline[di5klain]vt.谢绝, 拒绝, 推辞,使下降; 倾斜; 使()低垂【语】使变化(名词、代词、形容词等的)词尾(de+clin+e

-e是中古英语的动词后缀-en的变化。

中古英语 declinende+clin+en),源自 古法语 decliner(de+clin+er)

【法语】décliner  [dekline]v.i. 衰落,衰退,没落,[],[指天体]v.t. 谢绝,拒绝;[语言]使按性、数、格变化(dé+clin+er

-er法语动词后缀之一

【德语】deklinieren  v. decline, conjugate (Grammar)de+klin+ieren

注:法语、英语中的c改写为k。德语中的源自法语的动词多数用后缀-ieren

 

The inflected forms of nouns, known as cases, indicate whether a noun functions as a subject, an object, an indirect object, and others.

名词的变化称为“变格”——根据名词在句子承担的角色(如作主语、宾语)。

 

Since declensions form part of the foundation of Latin translation, it is necessary to memorize the uses of the cases early in Latin study.

 

Nominative Case (主格)The nominative case is used to indicate the subject of a finite verb.

主格作限定动词的主语。

 

When looking up a noun in a Latin dictionary, the nominative case is often given, followed by the genitive to indicate to which declension the noun belongs.

拉丁语词典一般列出名词的主格,后面列出属格。

Example:

【拉丁语】Nauta in scapha est.

【英语】The sailor is on the boat.

【拉丁语】scaphascapha, scaphae n. f. skiff; light boat;

 

Genitive Case(属格) The genitive case is used when one noun modifies another and is often used to show possession or ownership.

当一个名词修饰另一个名词时用属格,表示所属关系。

 

There are other uses of the genitive but the meaning of this case can usually be understood by using the preposition of.

 

A noun in the genitive case usually follows a noun in the nominative. Example:

【拉丁语】Filia viri pulchra est.

【英语】The daughter of the man is beautiful.

【拉丁语】filiafilia, filiae n. f. daughter; fili+a

【拉丁语】filiusfilius, fili n. m. son;fili+us

 

Dative Case(与格) – The dative case is used to indicate a noun which is indirectly affected by the verb.

Hence, nouns in the dative case function primarily as indirect objects.

与格作间接宾语——直接宾语的承受者。

 

Translation of indirect objects into English usually require the use of to or for with the noun.

间接宾语翻译成英语常常加介词tofor

 

Example:

【拉丁语】Puer puellae rosam dat.

【英语】The boy is giving a rose to the girl.

 

Accusative Case(宾格) Just as the dative case indicates an indirect object, so does the accusative case indicate a direct object or the noun directly affected by the verb.

 

The accusative case can also be used for the object of a preposition.

宾格作动词或介词的宾语。

 

Examples:

【拉丁语】Puer puellae rosam dat.

【英语】The boy is giving a rose to the girl.

 

【拉丁语】Nauta in scapham salit.

【英语】The sailor is jumping into the boat.

 

Ablative Case(离格或称夺格,也称状语格) – The ablative case is commonly referred to as the adverbial case because it is used to modify a verb by accompaniment, place, time, and so on.

 

 

Sometimes the ablative is used with a preposition and sometimes not.

 

There are so many uses for the ablative that there is no one way to easily translate it using a standard preposition. Often, the ablative can be translated using from, by, or with, but only context gives clues as to its use in a Latin sentence.

Example:

【拉丁语】Caesar urbem gladio vicit.

【英语】Caesar conquered the city with a sword.

 

Determining the function of a noun in early Latin study is a two-fold process.

First, the case must be identified. Second, the use of the noun in relation to the verb and other nouns must be determined so that correct translation is possible.

 

It is worth memorizing concurrently the forms of the declensions and their functions so that they can be recognized automatically and used without hesitation.

 

 

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  • 董进宇
    董进宇 : 同意!自己学习成长,会越来越好

    2015-10-09 18:17

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