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【练英语、学西班牙语】Spanish Suffixes(西班牙语后缀)

【练英语、学西班牙语】Spanish Suffixes(西班牙语后缀)

英语原地址

Spanish Suffixes

Many Are Cognates of Those We Use in English

By Gerald Erichsen

Spanish Language Expert

Do you want to increase your Spanish vocabulary?

One sure-fire way is to take the words you already know and learn how to apply suffixes to them.

 

Suffixes are simply word endings that can be used to modify a word's meaning.

We use them in English all the time, and nearly all of them that we use in English have a Spanish equivalent.

But Spanish has an even wider variety, and their usage isn't always as obvious as it would be in English.

Take a common word like manteca, for example.

That's the word for lard, a much-used cooking ingredient in Mexico and some other Spanish-speaking countries.

【西班牙语】manteca  f.  奶油, 猪油, 脂肪, 植物油脂, 肥胖(mantec+a

【意大利语】manteca  [mantèca]s.f.(1) 油脂, 油膏(2) [] 润发脂, 润发油

 

Add the ending -illa, a common ending, and it becomes mantequilla, or butter.

【西班牙语】mantequilla f.  黄油(mantequ+illa

manteca去掉后缀-a再加上-illa,并把c改为qu

西班牙语中,c位于a,o,u前读[k],位于e,i前读[θ]。法语、英语、意大利语、西班牙语有类似的变化——辅音字母c位于e,iy前读软音,在a,o,u前硬音。当读硬音c遇到ie开头的后缀时,为了保持读硬音,西班牙语、法语中也是把c改为qu,而意大利语中改为ch

Add the ending -ero, and it becomes mantequero, which can mean either a dairyman or a butter dish. (The spelling is changed from "c" to "qu" to maintain the pronunciation.)

【西班牙语】mantequero 1 adj. grocery mantequero (m) 2 n. grocer, one who owns and operates a grocery store (mantequ+ero)

-ero相当于英语中的-er

dairyman[5deErImEn]n.乳品加工工人,乳牛场主,养乳牛者(dairy+man

dairy[5dZEri]n.牛奶场, 奶品场, 售牛奶, 奶油, 鸡蛋等的商店, 奶制品(dai+ry

中古英语 daie [挤奶女工]

联想记忆:
daily[
5deili]adj.每日的, 日常的adv.每日, 日常地, 天天n.日报, <美口>朝来夜去的女佣(dai+ly)

 

Add the ending -ada, and it becomes mantecada, or buttered toast.

【西班牙语】mantecada (f)  n. shortbread, rich butter cookie; shortcake, cake made with shortening that is used in this dessertmantec+ada

Add -ado, and it becomes mantecado, or french ice cream.

Unfortunately, and the above words are an example, it isn't always possible to figure out what a word means simply by knowing the root word and the suffixes.

But the suffixes may give enough clues that in context you can make a more educated guess.

For example, the -ado and -ada endings are often the equivalent of the English "-ed."

 

So it isn't hard to see how mantecada could come to mean something buttered, just as in English "a malted" can refer to a milkshake with malt in it.

malt[mC:lt]n.麦芽

Spanish suffixes can roughly be classified as diminutives, augmentatives, pejoratives, English cognates, and miscellaneous ones.

And one, the adverbial suffix, is in a class of its own.

The Adverbial Suffix

Probably the most common Spanish suffix is -mente, which is usually added to the feminine singular form of adjectives to turn them into adverbs, just as we add "-ly" in English.

Thus simplemente is "simply," cariñosamente is "lovingly," rápidamente is "quickly," and so on.

【西班牙语】simplemente adv. plainly, merely, simplysimple+ment+e

【西班牙语】cariñosamente adv. kindly; lovingly, affectionately, caringly; dearly cariñosa+ment+e

【西班牙语】cariñoso adj. affectionate, loving, fond; kind, affable

 

Diminutives(指小后缀)

These suffixes are extremely common and are used to make a word refer to something smaller, either literally or figuratively as in a form of endearment.

figuratively adv.比喻地, 象征性地(fig+ur(e)+ative+ly

figurative[5fi^jurEtiv]adj.比喻的, 修饰丰富的, 形容多的(fig+ur(e)+ative)

figure[5fi^E]n.外形, 轮廓, 体形, 图形, 画像, 数字, 形状, 身份vt.描绘, 塑造, 表示, 象征, 演算, 认为vi.出现, 考虑, 出名, 扮演角色(fig+ure)

也就是说,这几个单词要重点记忆的只是fig-这个词根。

 

Thus, un gato is a cat, but un gatito is a kitten.

【西班牙语】gato  m.  , , 钱包, 千斤顶, 小偷, 马德里男人, 狡猾的人(gat+o

【西班牙语】gatito (m) n. kitten, pussy, young catgat+it+o

gatitiogato(猫)加指小后缀-it构成,表“小猫”。

注:指小后缀是西方语言中专门用来表“小、可爱、轻视、属性”一类意思的后缀。

 

In English we sometimes do the same thing by adding "-y."

事实上,英语中的指小后缀也有不少,但多数都是源自其它语言。

The most common diminutive is -ito (or its feminine equivalent, -ita), sometimes expanded to -cito or, less commonly, -illo or even -zuelo.

You can add one of these endings to many nouns and adjectives to arrive at a diminutive form.

Examples:

  • perrito (doggy)
  • hermanito (little brother)
  • papelito (slip of paper)

【西班牙语】perrito (m)  n. doggy, puppy, doggieperr+it+o

【西班牙语】perro  perro/rra adj.  极坏的m.f.  狗(perr+o

也就是说,perritoperro的指小后缀。您要重点记忆的是perr-

per-在英语中是一个前缀:

per-表示“通, 总”之义,请复习person, percent,performperfume, perfect, persperous

我以为,用英语单词联想记忆法语、德语、意大利语、西班牙语、葡萄牙语单词是一个好办法。这样学习,记得越多感觉越好玩。

 

Augmentatives(指大后缀)

Augmentatives are the opposite of diminutives and aren't used as much.

指大后缀和指小后缀表达相反的意思。

Augmentative endings include -ote, -ota, -ón, -ona, -azo, and -aza.

 For examples, un arbolote is a large tree, and un hombrón is a big or tough dude.

augmentative[C:^5mentEtiv]n.用来增强词义的语句adj.有增加力的, 增大意义的(aug+ment+ative

augment[C: ^5ment]v.增加, 增大n.增加(aug+ment)

源自 拉丁语 augmentum [增加]

 

【西班牙语】árbol  m.  , 桅杆, (árb+ol)

-ol是和拉丁语、英语中的-or类似的后缀

【英语】arbor [ar·bor || 'ɑ:bə]n.  凉亭, 棚架; 心轴; 浮子; 树木, 乔木(arb+or)

这实际上是一个拉丁语单词。

【拉丁语】arbor, arboris    N (3rd) F tree; tree trunk; mast; oar; ship; gallows; spearshaft; beam; squid?;arb+or

arbolote是árbol(树)的指大词,表“大树”。

Just as the diminutives sometimes are used to denote an endearing quality, the augmentatives can be used to convey a negative connotation.

Whereas un perrito may be a cute puppy, un perrazo could be a big scary dog.

perro表“狗”,perrito表“小狗”,perrazo表“大狗,大得吓人的狗”。

 

One augmentative, -ísimo, and its feminine and plural forms are used with adjectives to form a superlative.

Bill Gates isn't just rich, he's riquísimo.

西班牙语中,-ísimo构成最高级后缀,它实际上是拉丁语中的最高级后缀-issim的变化。意大利语中完整地继承了拉丁语中的后缀。

【意大利语】bravissimo[brB:5vi:si:mC:]<>int.太好了!好极啦!brav+issim+o

【英语】brave[breiv]adj.勇敢的, 无所畏惧的,鲜艳的; 炫耀的,很好的; 极成功的

 

Pejoratives(带贬义的后缀)

Pejoratives are added to words to indicate contempt or some form of undesirability.

英语中的-aster也是一个带带贬义的后缀,而-ster则是表~者的后缀。

They include -aco, -aca, -acho, -acha, -ajo, -aja, -ote, -ota, -ucho, and -ucha.

The precise translation often depends on the context.

Examples include casucha, a house that's falling apart, and ricacho, referring to a person who is rich in some undesirable way, such as arrogant.

fall apart v.崩溃, 土崩瓦解

arrogant[5ArE^Ent]adj.骄傲自大的, 傲慢无礼的(ar+rog+ant

an arrogant person骄傲自大的人

be arrogant toward sb.对某人傲慢无礼

【西班牙语】casucha (f)  n. slum, hovel, run-down and squalid residence that is unfit for human habitationcas+uch+a

【西班牙语】casa f.  房子, , 家务, 商号, , , 顾主(cas+a)

【西班牙语】casar  vi.  结婚, 下同样的赌注vt.  主持婚礼, 协调(cas+ar

-ar是西班牙语动词后缀之一

【法语】caser [kaze]v.t. 安顿,安置;<>给安排职务,使得到位置(cas+er

-er是法语动词后缀之一

se ~ v.pr. <>结婚,得到安顿,找到一个位置I v.t. 1. []放进家具等的格子里:caser des papiers 把文件放进格子里

2. []安顿,安置:trouver un logement pour caser un ami 找一个住所安顿一位朋友

3. []给安排职务,使得到位置:caser qn 安插某人

caser sa fille 嫁女儿

II se caser v.pr. 1. 安身,得到安顿

2. 被安插,受到安排

【意大利语】casa  s.f.(1) 房子,房屋,住宅:

casa di citta城市住宅

casa di campagna 乡村住宅

case popolari (市政府或社会团体等兴建的) 居民住宅

casa privata 私人住宅

casa signorile 高级住宅

casa colonica 佃农房屋

casa esposta a mezzogiorno 朝南房子

【拉丁语】casacasa, casae n. f. cottage/small humble dwelling, hut/hovel; home; house; shop, booth; farm (late);cas+a

 

English cognates(英语同源)

These suffixes are ones that are similar to suffixes in English and have a similar meaning.

 Nearly all of them have come to both languages by way of Greek or Latin.

Most have an abstract meaning, or are used to change one part of speech into another.

Here are some of the more commonly used cognates along with an example of each:

  • -aje — -age — kilometraje (like mileage, but in kilometers)
  • -ancia — -ancy — discrepancia (discrepancy)
  • -arquía — -archy — monarquía (monarchy)
  • -ático — -atic — lunático (lunatic)
  • -ble — -ble — manejable (manageable)
  • -cida, cidio — -cide — insecticida (insecticide)
  • -ción — -tion — agravación (aggravation)
  • -cracia — -cracy — democracia (democracy)
  • -crata — -crat — burócrata (bureaucrat)
  • -ancia — -ancy — discrepancia (discrepancy)
  • -dad — -ity — pomposidad (pomposity)
  • -esa, -iz, -isa — -ess — actriz (actress)
  • -fico, -fica — -fic — horrífico (horrific)
  • -filo, -filia — -file — bibliófilo (bibliophile)
  • -fobia — -phobia — claustrofobia (claustrophobia)
  • -fono — -phone — teléfono (telephone)
  • -dad — -ity — pomposidad (pomposity)
  • -icio, -icia — -ice — avaricia (avarice)
  • -ificar — -ify — dignificar (to dignify)
  • -ismo — -ism — budismo (Buddhism)
  • -dad — -ity — pomposidad (pomposity)
  • -ista — -ist — dentista (dentist)
  • -itis — -itis — flebitis (phlebitis)
  • -tud — -tude — latitud (latitude)
  • -izo — -ish — rojizo (reddish)
  • -or, -ora — -er — pintor (painter)
  • -osa, -oso — -ous — maravilloso (marvelous)

注:拉丁语、英语、法语、德语(老式)单词中用ph改写希腊语字母φ,而意大利语、西班牙语、葡萄牙语中直接用f

Continue to the following page for miscellaneous suffixes.

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