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练英语、学梵语:Avalokiteśvara(观世音菩萨)

练英语、学梵语:Avalokiteśvara观世音菩萨)

File:Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva Siddham Script.jpeg

观世音菩萨梵文अवलोकितेश्वरIASTAvalokiteśvara,藏文:སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་དབང་ཕྱུག威利Chenrezigwangchug藏语拼音qênrêsig),,又译为观自在菩萨光世音菩萨观世音自在菩萨汉语音译阿婆卢吉低舍婆罗阿缚卢枳低湿伐逻,大乘佛教西方极乐世界教主阿弥陀佛座下的上首菩萨,同大势至菩萨一起,为阿弥陀佛的左、右胁侍菩萨,并称西方三圣。同时祂也是四大菩萨之一。

在早期的佛经中,多直接自梵语“Avalokiteśvara”音译为阿婆卢吉低舍婆罗阿缚卢枳低湿伐逻竺法护和尚译为光世音菩萨南北朝姚秦时的鸠摩罗什法师译为观世音菩萨

唐代玄奘法师等译师们则译为观自在菩萨“Avalokita”“iśvara”自在,意为众生所见之主,故玄奘译为观自在菩萨,可见于今日的《般若心经[1]

传统上以为,因唐太宗李世民本名当中有个字,为了避讳,故当时将观世音菩萨改称为观音菩萨,但其实观音菩萨只是观世音菩萨的简称。唐代清凉澄观法师指出在梵文古本中存在两种不同的名称,1927年新疆出土的古抄本中,以Avalokitasvara为观音菩萨的名称,证实了他的说法。娑伐罗svara),意思为声音Avalokitasvara可意译为观音,鸠摩罗什出生在西域地区,所见的应该就是这个版本。因此,观音菩萨并非是因为避讳而出现的名称。根据宋代玄应的说法,这可能是来自于不同地区方言所导致的[2]

但观世音自在菩萨,光世音的译法,却找不到梵文的来源。

观世音菩萨从字面解释就是观察世间声音菩萨,出自《妙法莲华经》之《观世音菩萨普门品》:若有无量百千万亿众生,受诸苦恼,闻是观世音菩萨,一心称名,观世音菩萨即时观其音声,皆得解脱。又说:若有众生,多于淫欲,常念恭敬观世音菩萨,便得离欲。若多瞋恚,常念恭敬观世音菩萨,便得离瞋。若多愚痴,常念恭敬观世音菩萨,便得离痴。

另一重意思则出自《楞严经》。观世音菩萨以听音方法契入法性,证得耳根圆通,修成正果。

观世音菩萨在藏文 སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་དབང་ཕྱུགChenrezigwangchug),也是观自在之意,与玄奘法师等译师们译意相同。因为藏文观自在总共有五个藏语的音节,所以藏文书面、口语通常略称“Chenrezig眼视三个音节,而省略了“wangchug自在两个音节。

The name Avalokiteśvara is made of the following parts: the verbal prefix ava, which means "down"; lokita, a past participle of the verb lok ("to notice, behold, observe"), here used in an active sense (an occasional irregularity of Sanskrit grammar); and finally īśvara, "lord", "ruler", "sovereign" or "master".

 

In accordance with sandhi (Sanskrit rules of sound combination), a+iśvara becomes eśvara.

sandhi[5sAndhi:]adj.连接音变的n.连接音变(san+dhi)

san-=sam-表“同时”,我以为类似于希腊语的前缀syn-和拉丁语前缀con-

dhi“放置”

联想记忆:

bodhi[5bEudi]n.【宗】大彻大悟; (=bodhitree)菩提树(bo+dhi

 

Combined, the parts mean "lord who gazes down (at the world)".

The word loka ("world") is absent from the name, but the phrase is implied.[4]

It was initially thought that the Chinese mis-transliterated the word Avalokiteśvara as Avalokitasvara which explained why Xuanzang translated it as Guānzìzài (Ch. 觀自在) instead of Guānyīn (Ch. 觀音).

 

However, according to recent research, the original form was indeed Avalokitasvara with the ending a-svara ("sound, noise"), which means "sound perceiver", literally "he who looks down upon sound" (i.e., the cries of sentient beings who need his help; a-svara can be glossed as ahr-svara, "sound of lamentation").[5]

lamentation[7lAmen5teiFEn]n.悲叹, 哀悼(lament+ment)

lament[lE5ment]n.悲伤, 哀悼, 恸哭, 挽诗, 悼词vt.哀悼vi.悔恨, 悲叹

源自 古法语 lamenter

【法语】lamenter  [lamɑ~te](se)v.pr. 哀叹,悲叹,哀悼

I v.i. []哀叹;(鳄鱼、鸟等)哀呜

II v.t. []为…而悲伤,哀悼;为 …而哀号

III se lamenter v.pr. 悲哀,哀叹:

se lamenter d'avoir essuyé un échec 因遭到了失败而哀叹

========================

This is the exact equivalent of the Chinese translation Guānyīn.

This etymology was furthered in the Chinese by the tendency of some Chinese translators, notably Kumarajiva, to use the variant Guānshìyīn (Ch. 觀世音), literally "he who perceives the world's lamentations"—wherein lok was read as simultaneously meaning both "to look" and "world" (Skt. loka; Ch. , shì).[5]

This name was later supplanted by the form containing the ending śvara, which does not occur in Sanskrit before the seventh century.

The original form Avalokitasvara already appears in Sanskrit fragments of the fifth century.[6]

The original meaning of the name fits the Buddhist understanding of the role of a bodhisattva.

 

The reinterpretation presenting him as an īśvara shows a strong influence of Hinduism, as the term īśvara was usually connected to the Hindu notion of Krishna (in Vaisnavism) or Śiva (in Śaivism) as the Supreme Lord, Creator and Ruler of the world.

Hinduism[5hIndu:Iz(E)m]n.印度教

 

Some attributes of such a god were transmitted to the bodhisattva, but the mainstream of those who venerated Avalokiteśvara upheld the Buddhist rejection of the doctrine of any creator god.[7]

Bodhisattva[7bEudi5sAtvE]n.菩萨(bodhi+sattva

梵文 bodhisattva¡} [其精神得到开悟的人]

bodhi¡} [渊博的知识]sattvam [精神,神灵]  源自 sat- [存在]

An etymology of the Tibetan name Jänräsig (Jainraisig) is jän (eye), (continuity) and sig (to look).

Jain[dVaIn]n.耆那教徒adj.耆那教的, 耆那教徒的

源自 梵文 jaina- [与圣教徒有关的]

 

This gives the meaning of one who always looks upon all beings (with the eye of compassion).[8]

 

 

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