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练英语、学梵语:Bodhisattva(菩萨)本义是“超凡脱俗的哲学家”

练英语、学梵语:Bodhisattva(菩萨)本义是“超凡脱俗的哲学家”

 

Bodhisattva[7bEudi5sAtvE]n.菩萨(Bodhi+sattva

bodhih表“渊博的知识”

sattva源自梵语sattvam [精神,神灵],源自 sat- [存在]

 

bodhi[5bEudi]tree 菩提树(佛教的圣树,相传佛祖在此树下得道成佛)

bode[bEud]v.预示

源自 古英语 bodian [宣告]

 

我认为梵语中的Bodhisattva相当于英语中的philosopher——热爱智慧的人。

 

下面的内容请大概地读一读:

In Buddhism, a bodhisattva (Sanskrit: bodhisattva; Pali: bodhisatta) is either an enlightened (bodhi) existence (sattva) or an enlightenment-being or, given the variant Sanskrit spelling satva rather than sattva, "heroic-minded one (satva) for enlightenment (bodhi)."

Buddhism[5budizEm]n.佛教(Buddh+ism

Buddhology[bu5dClEdVi]佛教学(Buddh+ology)

ology[5ClEdVi]n.学问, 科学

 

Sanskrit[5sAnskrit]n.梵语adj.梵语的

Pali[5pB:li]n.巴利语(古代印度的一种语言,现成为佛教教徒的宗教语言,在泰国、缅甸和斯里兰卡仍作为书面语言使用)

 

enlightenment[in5laitnmEnt]n.启迪, 教化

-ment名词后缀

enlighten[in5laitn]vt.启发, 启蒙, 教导, 授予...知识, 开导, <>照耀(en+light+en

 

The Pali term has sometimes been translated as "wisdom-being,"[1] although in modern publications, and especially in tantric works, this is more commonly reserved for the term jñānasattva ("awareness-being"; Tib. ཡེ་ཤེས་སེམས་དཔའ་་, Wyl. ye shes sems dpa’).

wisdom[5wizdEm]n.智慧, 明智的行为, 学识, 名言, 贤人, 至理名言(wis+dom)

jñānasattva

ཡེ་ཤེས་སེམས་དཔའ

tantrictantra的形容词形式:

tantra[`tAntrE, `tQn-, `tB:n-]n.(印度教和佛教的)密教经典, 密教哲学

 

Traditionally, a bodhisattva is anyone who, motivated by great compassion, has generated bodhicitta, which is a spontaneous wish to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings.[2]

Buddhahood[`bJdEhJd]n.成为佛陀的状态(Buddha+hood

Buddha[5budE]n.

 

The bodhisattva is a popular subject in Buddhist art.

 

Usage of the term bodhisattva has evolved over time.

over time 随着时间的过去

evolve[i5vClv]v.(使)发展, (使)进展, (使)进化

e-=ex-, 相当于英语中的out

volv源自volvere []

In early Indian Buddhism, for example, the term bodhisattva was primarily used to refer specifically to the Buddha Shakyamuni in his former lives.[1][3]

Shakyamuni释迦牟尼

The Jatakas, which are the stories of his lives, depict the various attempts of the bodhisattva to embrace qualities like self-sacrifice and morality.

jataka[`dVB:tEkE]n.本生经(以佛教徒为内容的日常生活绘图,包括有关乔达摩佛陀(释迦牟尼)前世的故事)

depict[di5pikt]vt.描述, 描写(de+pict)

self-sacrifice[5self5sAkrifais]n.自我牺牲, 献身

morality[mR5rAlItI]adj.道德的n.道德(moral+ity)

-ity名词后缀

moral[5mCrEl]adj.道德(), 精神的(mor+al

-al形容词后缀

mor源自拉丁语mōs  mōr- [习惯,风俗]

 

The concept of bodhisattva, along with that of Buddha and of the cakravartin (world-ruler), was in vogue in India even before the appearance of Gautama Buddha.

along with 连同...一起, 随同...一起

Chakravartin (Sanskrit:cakravartin, Pali Cakkavatti), is a term used in Indian religions for an ideal universal ruler, who rules ethically and benevolently over the entire world. Such a ruler's reign is called sarvabhauma.

benevolently adv.仁慈地, 慷慨地(benevolent+ly)

benevolent[bi5nevElEnt]adj.慈善的(bene+vol+ent)

benevolence[bi5nevElEns]n.仁爱心, 善行(bene+vol+ence)

bene-表示“好”之义

vol源自volēsvelle的现在分词 [祝愿]

 

When Prince Siddhartha, who later became Gautama Buddha, took conception in the womb of Queen Maya, a seer predicted that Suddhodana's future son would be either a world-ruler (cakravartin) or a Buddha.

Siddhartha[sid5dB:tE]悉达多(佛教创始人释迦牟尼的本名,意为"义成就者")

Gautama[`^BJtEmE]n.释迦牟尼之俗姓

 

conception[kEn5sepFEn]n.妊娠, 胎儿; 开始, 起源,概念; 观念,设想, 见解, 想法; 构思, 构想,概念的形成, 想象图, 想象之作(concept+ion)

concept[5kCnsept]n.【哲】概念,观念, 思想, (基本)原理, 定则, 意想(con+cept)

seer[siE]n.预言家, 先知者, 幻想家(se(e)+er)

see[si:]v., 看见

 

Once, answering a question by a Brahmin, the Buddha himself admitted that he is neither a god nor a yakkha, but a Buddha, meaning thereby one of a succession of Buddhas (A. II, p. 38).

neither nor 既不...也不...

a succession of 一连串

yakkha是尼泊尔的God

 

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