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标准英语发音原是空中楼阁

标准英语发音原是空中楼阁

 

学习英语需要练习发音,在很多人看来这是天经地义的事情。而练习发音就要练“标准英语”发音。

但不知道大家是否想过:大家筋疲力尽地练习的所谓的“标准英语”发音根本就是不存在的东西。

中国有汉语普通话作为汉语的发音标准,而英语中却没有这种“普通话”。

 

大家常说的“标准英语发音”和我们的汉语普通话并不是一个概念。

 

请大家读一读下面的内容:

Received Pronunciation n.(英语的)标准发音

标准发音:英国英语中英国南部一种表明社会地位和文化优越性的发音方式,过去曾是公立学校、牛津大学和剑桥大学所流行的口语发音,后来被广播电台采纳为英语标准发音方式也作BBC English,Southern Educated Standard

现在连BBC的播音员也不再说这种RPBBC在讨论这个问题的时候,在用早期播音员的风格说话以后自己都忍不住笑了。相信他们明白自己的发音和RP有很大的区别。

英国人在说到RP时,首先会提到伊丽莎白女王。她的发音是公认的RP。但在比较了她的早期和现在的发音资料以后,人们不难发现,她的发音也发生了明显的改变。BBC上一句话或许对我们会有启发:Enlgish is changing! 也就是说世界上并没有一成不变的RP

 

对于RP感兴趣的朋友,建议读一读下面的文章:

 

======= RP - Received Pronunciation=============

 

No two speakers of English speak the language identically.

identically adv.同一地, 相等地(identical+ly)

identical[ai5dentikEl]adj.同一的, 同样的(identic+al)

identic[ai5dentik]adj.同一的, 恒等的,完全相同的,措词相同的,形式相同的(ident+ic

源自中世纪拉丁语 identicus [一致的]

 

 

 

建议大家复习一下《新概念英语》第2册的第25课:

I arrived in London at last. 我终于到了伦敦。 

arrive in v.到达

at last adv.终于

 

The railway station was big, black and dark. 火车站很大,又黑又暗。 

 

I did not know the way to my hotel, so I asked a porter. 我不知道去饭店的路该怎么走,于是向一个搬运工打听。 

 

I not only spoke English very carefully, but very clearly as well. 

我的英语讲得不但非常认真,而且咬字也非常清楚。 

 

 

The porter, however, could not understand me. 

然而搬运工却不明白我的话。

 

 I repeated my question several times and at last he understood. 

 我把问话重复了很多遍。他终于听懂了。 

 

 

He answered me, but he spoke neither slowly nor clearly. 

他回答了,但他讲得既不慢也不清楚。 

neither nor 既不...也不...

 

 'I am a foreigner,' I said. 

 “我是个外国人,”我说。 

Then he spoke slowly, but I could not understand him. 

于是他说得慢了,可我还是听不懂。 

 

My teacher never spoke English like that! 

我的老师从来不那样讲英语! 

这是问题的关键,在听不懂老外说的英语之前就匆忙地练习所谓的英语发音的结果基本上就是这样结局。如今的网络这么发达,看英语电影、听英语歌曲、找几个老外用英语聊天都是十分方便的事情。为什么还要在一条道上走到黑呢?

 

 

The porter and I looked at each other and smiled.  

我和搬运工相视一笑。 

each other adv.彼此, 互相

 

Then he said something and I understood it. 

接着,他说了点什么,这回我听懂了。

 

'You'll soon learn English!' he said. 

  您会很快学会英语的!”他说。 

 

 

 I wonder. In England, each person speaks a different language. 

 我感到奇怪。在英国,人们各自说着一种不同的语言。

 

 

The English understand each other, but I don't understand them! 

英国人之间相互听得懂,可我却不懂他们的话! 

 

不仅是英国人之间相互能听懂,就是美国人也可以听懂英国人说的英语,一个美国学生到了英国就不太会出现这种情况。我们的孩子学习的所谓的标准英语实际上是有些聪明人自己“臆造”的产物。

 

Do they speak English? 

他们说的是英语吗?

 

==================================================

 

Every English-speaking country, and practically every region within those countries, has a distinctive accent.

distinctive[dis5tiNktiv]adj.与众不同的, 有特色的

distinct[dis5tiNkt]adj.清楚的, 明显的, 截然不同的, 独特的(di+stinct

联想记忆:

instinct[5instiNkt]n.本能(in+stinct

 

It is also true that meanings of words and grammatical forms can vary from one English-speaking country to another, but this entry is concerned solely with the standard pronunciation of British English.

 

This is what linguists call 'Received Pronunciation' or 'RP'. RP refers exclusively to pronunciation, though it can be seen as analogous to Standard English ('SE').

 

analogous[E5nAlE^Es]adj.类似的, 相似的, 可比拟的(analog+ous

analog[5AnElC^]n.类似物, 相似体(ana+log)

ana- [根据]

log这里表“比例”

 

Where Did it Come From?

 

Modern RP can be described as 'the speech of educated people living in London and the southeast of England and of other people elsewhere who speak in this way'.

 

 

It developed from what was essentially a regional accent that acquired a unique level of prestige among the ruling and privileged classes in 19th Century Britain, particularly in London.

 

No specific authority gave the accent that would become RP its special status. It just seems to have developed as a consequence of its geographical position surrounding the capital, and thus to the weighty affairs of the rich and powerful.

 

It may also be said that the development of the Public School system1 in the 19th Century (Winchester, Eton, Harrow, Rugby, and so on) and the ancient universities (Oxford and Cambridge) played a part in establishing the RP accent as the 'standard' voice of the English Gentleman.

 

 

The result was the marked (and today somewhat ridiculed) accent sometimes called 'ultra-RP', now most often associated with the upper classes and those who have been through the Public School system.

 

ridicule[5ridikju:l]n.嘲笑, 奚落v.嘲笑, 奚落

ridiculous[ri5dikjulEs]adj.荒谬的, 可笑的(ridic+(c)ul+ous

 

ultra[5QltrE]adj.过激的, 极端的n.过激论者, 急进论者

This 'marked' RP can be identified as the starchy, standardised pronunciation used by the BBC radio announcers during the 1930s and '40s, which became known as 'BBC English'.

starchy[5stB:tFI]adj.淀粉的, 拘泥的, 浆硬的, 含淀粉的

starch[stB:tF]n.淀粉, [] 拘谨, 古板, 生硬

请复习star, arch

 

 

也就说,现在的所谓标准英语有时是指上世纪3040年的BBC English。现在的bbc几乎没有人再说这种英语。BBC有专门的节目介绍。

 

 

This social aspect of the origins of RP is still nominally acknowledged when RP is called the 'prestige' accent of British English.

prestige[pres5ti:V, -5ti:dV]n.声望, 威望, 威信(pre+stige

stige源自stringere [拉紧]

 

It can be said, however, that the social distinctions and privileges formerly associated with the accent of 'The Establishment' are becoming less closely tied to 'modern' RP.

在当今社会,就是在英国也没有多少人愿意公然以“Queen’s English标榜自己是“贵族”身份。就是女王自己的发音也早就随着时光的推移而有了很大的变化。所以说,曾经的“标准英语”早就已经烟消云散了。

 

In fact, RP as it is understood today is less marked than the RP of the early 19th Century.

 

The Times They Are a'Changin'

Interestingly, in recent times the prestige associated with RP has fallen away.

 

Today 'marked RP' is spoken only by members of the royal family and others from the upper classes.

royal family 皇室

upper class 上层社会, 贵族阶层

 

It is considered over-the-top by most people and a strong 'posh' accent is often described as 'plummy' and attracts ridicule.

posh[pCF]adj.[]时髦地, 豪华的, 漂亮的, 优雅的, 极好的

 

 

In order to communicate effectively and come across as 'normal', many former public school attendants retain some kind of regional accent or prefer to speak a (albeit usually mild) form of Estuary English.

estuary[5estjuEri]n.三角湾, 河口湾, 港湾(e+stu+ary

源自 aestus [潮汐,汹涌,发烧]

 

Will Estuary English become the new RP?

That's another question.

 

Today, RP is used by linguists as a 'standard' pronunciation of British English for study purposes and also by teachers of English as a Foreign Language so schools can teach a standard form of spoken British English.

 

When learning a foreign language, it is very unsettling to think of regional variation!

unsettling[5Qn5setliN]adj.使人不安的; (消息)混乱的

unsettle[5Qn5setl]vt.使不安定; 使不能稳定(un+settle

连任何英语歌曲都听不懂,就在那里天天思考是学习“英式英语”还是“美式英语”,是不是很可笑。世界上绝对不可能会有一个人只能能听懂“英式英语”却听不懂“美式英语”。

世界上只有一个英语,所谓的“英式”、“美式”、“澳式”、“印式”都只是一些细节上的不同。

 

 

RP is seen as the form of English pronunciation most widely recognised and understood within the British national community.

 

Very few British people speak with a strict RP accent but most recognise and understand it. This makes it the most suitable form of the spoken language to teach to people learning English as a foreign language.

 

事实证明,这种方式也是不可取的。你辛辛苦苦练习的英语到了英国人家却听不懂,这不是白费功夫吗?

建议大家在练习发音时,最好先多找一些自己最喜欢的native speaker的演讲资料先练习听。在听懂的基础上再练习说。

 

This is not to say that alternative pronunciations are to be regarded as wrong or invalid as such.

 

Regional accents are well preserved in many parts of Britain despite the levelling influences of film, television, and radio.

有了电影、电视和收音机,甚至现在的网络,英国本身也依然保留着各种各样的口音。我们如果想学习到英语能用的英语,相信应该可以听懂那里的大部口音的英语。换句话说,就是在英语也不存在统一、标准的“英式英语”。

 

It does mean that linguists have established a convention by which a standard pronunciation of British English can be described, written (ie, phonetically transcribed), and read.

 

Modern linguists tend to prefer to take a descriptive rather than prescriptive approach to studying language, and as a result no-one is likely to try actively to 'suppress' such regional variations.

 

连简单的英语文章都读不懂就不要再坚持什么“标准英语发音”了。

等您能看懂英语文章,能听懂英语歌曲,能看懂英语电影以后再“标准英语”,您一定会发现自己当初是多么的荒唐!

 

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评论 (2条) 发表评论

  • 方侠
    方侠 : 是的,是有人问我类似的问题,放这篇文章算作回答。

    2012-06-24 17:09

  • 李
    : 此篇文章您之前似乎发表过

    2012-06-20 17:30

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